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Firenze

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Veduta aerea di Firenze

Firenze (ZIP code 50100) is the Chief Town of the homonymous province to whom the municipality belongs.

Firenze has a population of 352.227 inhabitants (Fiorentini) and a surface of 102,41 square kilometers thus showing a population density of 3.439,38 inhabitants per square kilometer. It rises 50 metres above the sea level.

The City Hall is located in Piazza della Signoria 1, phone ++39 055 - 27681, fax ++39 055 - 2616722: the E-Mail address is sindaco@comune.fi.it.

Population: The municipality of Firenze had a popolation of 403.294 inhabitants accordingly to the results of the national census made in 1991. After the national census made in 2001 the population was 352.227 inhabitants, thus showing during the years 1991 - 2001 a percentual variation of -12,66% inhabitants.

The inhabitants are distributed in 162.963 families with an average of 2,16 people per family.

The place: The territory of the municipality lies between 30 and 343 metres above sea level.

The altimetric spawn is thus of 313 metres.

Work and workers:There are 7.121 industrial firms employing 32.731 people that are the 19,66% of the total of the workers. There are 11.141 service firms employing 31.325 people that are the 18,81% of the total of the workers. There are also 17.303 firms employing 57.511 people that are the 34,54% of the total of the workers. There are also 2.737 administrative offices emplying 44.944 workers that are the 26,99% of the total of the workers.

There is a total of 166.511 workers, that are the 47,27% of the inhabitants of the municipality.

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Il Palazzo Vecchio

Florence rises on the banks of the Arno river.

The main economic activities in Florence are tourism, textil, metallurgic, pharmaceutic, chemical, glass and pottery industry, embroider, leather and the craftsmanship of goldsmith's art: this last one was improved at craftsmen's shops nearby Ponte Vecchio.

Florence represents one of the greatest examples of classical beauty, a cradle of arts and culture in the world.

Florence foundation goes back to X secolo B.C. and its name comes from the ancient Latin word "Florentia", a wishing name probably referred to the soil fertility.

Florence was built on a rectangular plant within the junction of two rivers, the Arno and the Mugnone, for security reasons against invasions.

The two main roads of Florence take to four Gates and converge in the ancient central square of Urbis del Forum, today named Piazza della Repubblica.

The Capitoline Baths, the Bath of Capaccio, the system of dark waters, the floor of the streets and the Temple of Iside at San Firenze Square, brought to light by recent archaeological excavations, belonged to the ancient urban centre.

The first written data testifying the presence of the Christian religion in Florence go back to 313 A.C. by the registration of the bishop Saint Felice's participation to a synod in 313 A.C. in Florence.

Saint Lorenz Church, first diocese in the city, was consecrated in 393 A.C..

Under the Roman Emperor Diocleziano's government, Florence was the capital of Tuscan and Umbrian region.

Later Florence could not escape from Barbaric invasions that envolved it in the war between Gothics and Byzantines.

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Il Battistero di San Giovanni e la Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore

In 553 Nersete's Byazntines occupied Florence and their domination held out about 20 years, until 570, when Longobards occupied Tuscany: for Florence started the darkest period in its history losing the role of capital in Lucca favour.

During Carolingian Age, between the eighth and ninth centuries, Florence flourishes again through the foundation of a feudal system and the urban conversion into a country of the Holy Roman Empire. The institution of one of the first public schools occurred in this same period.

In the first Middle Ages, Florence was engaged in the reforming process of Church hosting the Council, in 1055, under Vittorio II's papacy, in the presence of the Emperor Enrico III and 120 bishops.

In 1125 Firenze became a free common. After the last Frank emperor's death, Enrico VI, in Florence started great conflicts between Guelphs, Papacy's supporters, and Ghibellines, Empire's supporters.

In XII-th century a politic governement was formed by the seven mayor arts: doctors, merchants, bankers, wool manufacturers, silk manufacturers, industrialists and traders.

During XII-th century Guelphs divided in two opposite parts: on one hand, the Whites formed by aristocracy, middle and minor arts, on the other one, the Blacks formed by industrialists and traders.

After several events where different politic factions alternated to the power, in 1434, the banker Cosimo de' Medici came to power. With him, for Florence starts gold Renaissance age.

Afterwards Lorenzo de' Medici, called "the Magnificent", transformed Florentine Republic into a Princedom.

Lorenzo the Magnificent's princedom lasted until 1492 and in 1494 the Republic was founded and it lasted until 1512.

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Piazza Santa Maria Novella

After 1512 the Princedom was re-established and Medici Family went to power again up to 1737.

After Gian Gastone de' Medici, the last Medician heir, succeeded to the throne the Asburgo Lorena family who appointed Florence as capital of Etruria.

In 1860, Tuscany was added to the Kingdom of Italy by Savoia Family who appointed Florence as capital of new kingdom of Italy from 1865 to 1871.

Among the most important monuments in Florence we point out here the Cattedrale di San Lorenzo (Saint Lorenz Cathedral), the Battistero di San Giovanni (Saint Giovanni Baptistery), the Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore (Saint Maria del Fiore Cathedral), the Campanile (Belfry), the Duomo (Cathedral), the Palazzo Vecchio (Old Palace), the Palazzo Pitti (Pitti Palace), the Galleria degli Uffizi (Gallery of Uffizi) and the Museo del Bargello (Bargello Museum).

Among famous people who were born in Florence, we remind here Dante Alighieri (1265-1321), author of the famous Divine Comedy.

Among several historical events taking place periodically in Florence, we point out the annual procession occurring on October 8th that goes through the city. During the procession it is possible to visit the Florentine museums and the main Roman monuments.