|Back to the province of Siena
Siena (ZIP code 53100) is the Chief Town of the homonymous province to whom the municipality belongs.
Siena has a population of 48.844 inhabitants (Senesi) and a surface of 118,7 square kilometers thus showing a population density of 411,49 inhabitants per square kilometer. It rises 322 metres above the sea level.
The City Hall is located in Piazza il Campo 23, phone ++39 0577 - 292111, fax ++39 0577 - 292166: the E-Mail address is email@example.com.
Population: The municipality of Siena had a popolation of 56.956 inhabitants accordingly to the results of the national census made in 1991. After the national census made in 2001 the population was 48.844 inhabitants, thus showing during the years 1991 - 2001 a percentual variation of -14,24% inhabitants.
The inhabitants are distributed in 20.430 families with an average of 2,39 people per family.
The place: The territory of the municipality lies between 166 and 414 metres above sea level.
The altimetric spawn is thus of 248 metres.
Work and workers:There are 814 industrial firms employing 5.198 people that are the 17,51% of the total of the workers. There are 1.504 service firms employing 3.910 people that are the 13,17% of the total of the workers. There are also 2.184 firms employing 10.878 people that are the 36,65% of the total of the workers. There are also 444 administrative offices emplying 9.696 workers that are the 32,67% of the total of the workers.
There is a total of 29.682 workers, that are the 60,77% of the inhabitants of the municipality.
Siena rises on a hill placed between the valleys of Arbia and Elsa rivers.
Main economic activities in Siena concern the agriculture, by cultivation of vines, olives and corns, breeding, wine production and mining activity of marble and mercury.
Confectionary production is characteristic, it is famous for example the Panforte of Siena, such as the craftsmanship of wrought iron and of ceramics is typical. Siena is also a productive industrial centre in food, chemical and pharmaceutical compartments.
According to a first legend Siena was founded by the Galli Senoni population, whereas according to another one, it was founded by Senio, a Romolo’s son. By historical written data Siena would be an ancient Etruscan settlement, called Sena, and when it was conquered by the Romans, at the emperor Augusto’s time, took the name of Sena Iulia.
There are no certain news about Siena from High Middle Age to the seventh century. Only around 1000, Siena started to develop, first under the guide of bishops who extended their control to the near castles and constricted lords to install themselves in the city, and then under the guide of consuls.
In that time there was a great population and economic increase. The impulse, impressed by commerce, and the accumulated riches led to internal struggles that flew into an ideological conflict between supporters of Papacy, called Guelphs, and supporters of Empire, called Ghibellines.
After a long Episcopal domination, Siena achieved its greatest success becoming an autonomous common in 1147 and by adopting an expansionist policy towards neighbouring territories.
In 1260 the fighting with Florence was inevitable: in the Montaperti battle, Siena defeated the Florentine army and imposed its superiority. Nine years later, the turning point was the battle in Colle Val d’Elsa, where people from Siena was defeated by the Florentines and all the leaders of Ghibellines were constricted to leave the city.
Guelphs came to power and broke up the long controversy with Florence, giving to the city a new form of power that insured it a new and lasting economic increase.
The epidemic of plague in 1348 marked the beginning of a time of decadence characterized by continuous political upsets until the Republic surrendered itself to Gian Galeazzo Visconti in 1390. That event started a series of animated popular clashes against Gian Galeazzo Visconti, who was moved away from Siena in 1402.
The structure of the government continued to be marked by a strong instability: nobility and common people succeeded each other to the power.
The opposite factions reduced their conflicts only thanks to Saint Catherine and Saint Bernardine’s teachings supporting peace.
Between XV and XVI centuries, the opposite parties succeed each other to the power now supporting Empire, now supporting Papacy, until Siena was conquered by Carlo V. In 1530 Carlo V gave power to merchants but when he moved from the city, they were chased away.
In 1554 Siena was besieged by the imperial army and after several conflicts, that reduced population, it was constricted to surrender.
In 1559 started the age of Medici Family and Siena was added to Tuscan Dukedom, sharing its sort and the successive submission to Lorena until the unification of Italy.
Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted the annexation to the Reign of Italy, occurred on 1861.
Among the most important monuments in Siena we point out here the Chiesa di San Domenico (Saint Domenico Church), the Chiesa dei Santi Pietro e Paolo (Saints Pietro and Paolo Church), the Chiesa di Santa Maria dei Servi (Saint Maria dei Servi Church), the Cathedral, the Torre del Mangia (Tower of Mangia),the Palazzo Pubblico (Public Palace), the Palazzo Chigi-Saracini (Chigi-Saracino Palace), the Palazzo Piccolomini (Piccolomini Palace), the Palazzo del Magnifico (Palace of the Magnificent) and the Fortezza Medicea (Medici's Fortrees).
Among great personalities who were born in Siena we remind here the poet Cecco Angiolieri (1260ca-1310ca) and the writer Federigo Tozzi (1883-1920).
Among several historical and cultural events, taking place periodically in Siena, we point out the Horserace of Siena occurres on July 2nd and on August 16th being the latter known as Palio dell'Assunta. Siena is divided into seventeen districts: ten districts of them compete, in turn, to the horse race.