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Calenzano

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Chiesa di San Severo

Calenzano (ZIP code 50041) is 22,3 kilometers far from Firenze, that is the Chief Town of the homonymous province to whom the municipality belongs.

Calenzano has a population of 14.838 inhabitants (Calenzanesi) and a surface of 76,88 square kilometers thus showing a population density of 193,00 inhabitants per square kilometer. It rises 108 metres above the sea level.

The City Hall is located in Piazza Vittorio Veneto 12, phone ++39 055 - 88331, fax ++39 055 - 8833232: the E-Mail address is comune@comune.calenzano.fi.it.

Population: The municipality of Calenzano had a popolation of 14.959 inhabitants accordingly to the results of the national census made in 1991. After the national census made in 2001 the population was 14.838 inhabitants, thus showing during the years 1991 - 2001 a percentual variation of -0,81% inhabitants.

The inhabitants are distributed in 5.335 families with an average of 2,78 people per family.

The place: The territory of the municipality lies between 42 and 934 metres above sea level.

The altimetric spawn is thus of 892 metres.

Work and workers:There are 832 industrial firms employing 6.230 people that are the 53,42% of the total of the workers. There are 528 service firms employing 2.055 people that are the 17,62% of the total of the workers. There are also 413 firms employing 2.877 people that are the 24,67% of the total of the workers. There are also 77 administrative offices emplying 501 workers that are the 4,30% of the total of the workers.

There is a total of 11.663 workers, that are the 78,60% of the inhabitants of the municipality.

Calenzano rises along a large hilly area extending from the city of Florence to the cities of Prato and Pistoia.

Calenzano is a seat of several mechanical, textile and chemical industries. Its economy is also active in the tourist field.

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Chiesa di San Severo: il campanile

The first settlements in the area of Calenzano go back to the Roman Age when the town was an important road junction. The Roman structure of the city is still clear and it is characterized by the typical plant of the Roman "castrum" with the alignment of the roads along the north-south and east-west directions.

The place name comes from the proper name of person "Calentius" referring to the name of Caleninzi family, the first family who probably owned the town.

In the Middle Ages Calenzano was a feudal property of the Counts Guidi who erected around XII-th century a fortress, whose property during that same century passed to different Florentine families, as the Cavalcanti family. During that period were built the first parishes on the remains of some previous Roman religious buildings. A parish, whose name come from the Latin word "plebem" that literally means population, refers to the country people who develop around a church.

Under the Florentine domination Calenzano subdued around 1125 the conflicts started in Florence between the Guelphs, Papacy's supporters, and Ghibellines, Empire's supporters.

In 1260 Calenzano was destroyed during the Montaperti battle won by the Ghibelline party.

In 1325 the town subdued other devastations, first by Castruccio Castracani and then by the Visconti's army.

Since 1352 Calenzano entered the Florentine Republic, that, taking in account the strategic position of the town, started the building of a ring of walls.

During the next year Calenzano was besieged by the Pisans but it was able to resist and chase the enemy away, thanks also to the fortifications occurred on the previous years.

At the end of the fourteenth-century the hostile situation between the powerful cities of Pisa and Florence was stabilized and thus started for Calenzano a flourishing period and it was appointed centre of a legacy of the Florentine countryside.

During those years the town developed an agricultural economy took up the production of the socalled "white grain" and the valuable wines and oils.

During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were built the first mills that contributed to a growing of the economy and population that lasted until the Contemporary Age.

In 1861 Calenzano was added to the Reign of Italy by the King Vittorio Emanuele II of Savoia.

Among the most interesting monuments to see in Calenzano we point out here the Pieve di San Donato (Saint Donato Parish), the Pieve di San Severo (Saint Severo Parish), the Chiesa di San Niccolò (Saint Niccolò Church), the Oratorio della Compagnia del Santissimo Sacramento (Holiest Sacrament Company Oratory), the Pieve di Santa Maria (Saint Mary Parish), the Villa Peragallo (Peragallo Villa) and the Museo del Soldatino (Museum of the Toy Soldiers). Among the several celebrations taking place periodically in Calenzanowe point out the traditional "Medieval Carnival" held on the two Sundays of the carnival period and on the Pancake Day (Shrove Tuesday) and that consists of a parade of allegorical carts and some tournaments in Medieval costume.