Back to the province of Livorno

Campiglia Marittima

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Chiesa San Giovanni

Campiglia Marittima (ZIP code 57021) is 87,1 kilometers far from Livorno, that is the Chief Town of the homonymous province to whom the municipality belongs.

Campiglia Marittima has a population of 12.543 inhabitants (Campigliesi) and a surface of 83,18 square kilometers thus showing a population density of 150,79 inhabitants per square kilometer. It rises 231 metres above the sea level.

The City Hall is located in Via Roma 5, phone ++39 0565 - 839111, fax ++39 0565 - 839259: the E-Mail address is campiglia.sindaco@etruscan.li.it.

Population: The municipality of Campiglia Marittima had a popolation of 12.513 inhabitants accordingly to the results of the national census made in 1991. After the national census made in 2001 the population was 12.543 inhabitants, thus showing during the years 1991 - 2001 a percentual variation of 0,24% inhabitants.

The inhabitants are distributed in 4.972 families with an average of 2,52 people per family.

The place: The territory of the municipality lies between 3 and 632 metres above sea level.

The altimetric spawn is thus of 629 metres.

Work and workers:There are 250 industrial firms employing 1.243 people that are the 37,29% of the total of the workers. There are 329 service firms employing 790 people that are the 23,70% of the total of the workers. There are also 255 firms employing 876 people that are the 26,28% of the total of the workers. There are also 79 administrative offices emplying 424 workers that are the 12,72% of the total of the workers.

There is a total of 3.333 workers, that are the 26,57% of the inhabitants of the municipality.

Campiglia Marittima rises along the western slopes of the Pitti mountain.

The local economy is mainly based on the extraction and processing of lead and pyrite and on the agricultural production of wheat, grapes, artichokes and olives. Remarkable is also the tourist activity promoted both by the beauties of the landscapes and the typically Medieval urban structure and by the presence of numerous and qualified hotels.

The place name is testified for the first time in an official document dating back to 1004 as "Campilia". The town took its actual name in the XIX-th century, as coming from the Latin word "Campus" with the meaning of "field" and later were added first the suffix "-iglia" and then the specification "Marittima" with probable reference to the Maremma.

The territory of Campiglia Marittima was populated since the Etruscan Age. The Etruscans were the first to start the extraction of the minerals that the area offered, like copper, iron, lead and marble.

However the real consolidation of the residential settlements occurred on the VIII-th century around a castle that was previously erected by the Gherardesca's Counts.

Between the XII-th and XIII-th centuries the first religious buildings were built, like the Saint John Parish, and the community of Campiglia Marittima formed around those ones.

In XIV-th century Campiglia Marittima was subdued by the Republic of Pisa, that previously occupied the close towns. In the next century the whole area passed under the jurisdiction of the city of Florence.

In 1407 the village of Campiglia Marittima subdued a besiege by the King of Naples, Alfonso of Aragona, who was called by the Gherardesca's Counts in order to help them to oppose to the Florentine power and to get again their domains.

Due to the Counts' defeat , the Republic of Florence got the definitive control of Campiglia Marittima, making it the main outpost of the Florentine Republic.

At the same time the mining activity was intensified and thus occurred again during the XVI-th century under the Grand Duke Cosimo I of Medici.

Copyright © Editori dell'Acero Chiesa San Giovanni

During the XVII-th century Campiglia Marittima lost its strategic role and thus its lands were utilized for rural cultivations. From then a phase of decline started, caused also by spreading of the marshy lands.

Only in the first half of the XIX-th century, by coming the Lorena's Dukes to the power, the economy of Campiglia Marittima could rise. The Dukes started the reclamation of the territory thus promoting the economic and population increase.

The Lorena's domination lasted up to the Unity of Italy, with the brief interruption of the French invasion in the territory of Campiglia Marittima.

In 1861 Campiglia Marittima was annexed to the Reign of Italy by the King Vittorio Emanuele II of savoia.

Among the most interesting monuments to see in Campiglia Marittima we point out here the Pieve di San Giovanni (Saint John Parish), the Castello della Gherardesca (Gherardesca's Castle), the Terme (Thermal Baths) and the Calidario.

Among the numerous celebrations periodically taking place in Campiglia Marittima we remind here the traditional "Historical Procession" yearly held on the first following Sunday on May 15th.
The procession evokes the historical period about the Florentine domination of Campiglia Marittima and especially the dispatch of a Captain of Justice in order to defend the Florentine economic interests. The procession is followed by a "Giostra degli Anelli" (Rings Tournament) consisting of a horse race in Medieval costumes involving the four quarters of the town.